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Moths of North America (MONA) or 'Hodges' Numbers
Several numbering systems for moths have been used in the past. Recently, 'Bar Codes' for moths using genetic sequence data have been proposed. The MONA numbers and the even older McDunnough Numbers ("McD#" in the species accounts) are used here as a way to link past and current taxonomic moth classifications with any future classifications; ideally, as the names change, the MONA numbers remain the same.
The is no consistent requirement for the use of MONA numbers, or any other numbering system: the Moth Photographers Group (MPG) uses MONA numbers, Opler and Powell in "The Moths of Western America", do not.
In the original MONA list, numbers ending in a lower-case letter ("a","b","c,", etc.) indicate a subspecies. That convention is followed for any subspecies listed on this site. The MPG uses decimal MONA numbers to insert new species into the MONA numbering system. That convention is also used on this site.
Moths and Memories
Where Are the Specimens Now?
ASH CANYON FIRE (2011)
Background and Introduction
Elfin Forests, Worldwide: MAQUIS / FYNBOS / KWONGAN / MATORRAL / CHAPARRAL
About The Backyard Concept
Motivations: Why Publish This Material?
Summarizing How These Projects Evolved
About the Photographs
Bias in Photo Representation
Taxonomy & Classification (the names)
About Moth Families & Subfamilies
Some Thoughts About Moth Surveys
Abundance Ratings Defined (8 Categories)
About the Flight Periods
Interpretation of the Flight-Phenograms
Miscellaneous Comments on Black Lights
Peculiarities of Moth Activity
Prime Time = Full-Moon-Plus-Ten
How To Obtain Perfect (Moth) Specimens
To Kill Or Not To Kill??
Beating or Sweeping for Larvae
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & DETERMINATIONS
Miscellaneous Tidbits Dept.